An effective tool in preventing deadly diseases, the coronavirus vaccine is one of the world’s most successful vaccines. Originating from the SARS-2 virus, this vaccine has successfully been used in countries around the globe such as Canada, China, India, South Africa and the United Kingdom to combat a variety of childhood and adult respiratory tract infections. The vaccine is given in three injections within a span of four weeks to prevent the disease.
Each country has different rules and regulations governing the transfer of this vaccine to children and other individuals who might be at risk for exposure. For instance, in the United Kingdom, all homeopathic vaccinations must be obtained before the expiration of the authority to administer these vaccines. Likewise, the authority to sell or prescribe these vaccines is also limited to qualified professionals only. One advantage of the three-dose schedule is that there are no age restrictions, as it can be administered to anyone irrespective of his or her age. However, to boost its effectiveness, it is recommended that emergency use authorization should be obtained before administering the product.
It has been observed that countries that have introduced this vaccine have seen a notable reduction in the number of cases of SARS-2. However, there have been no clinical trials conducted to assess the effectiveness of the vaccine in terms of preventing the disease. Despite this lack of clinical trial data, it is believed that the vaccine could prevent a large number of cases of pneumonia, gastrointestinal tract infections, encephalitis, meningitis and shingles. However, these studies are yet to be conclusive.
A clinical trial conducted in China found that the vaccine helped reduce the number of children who had laboratory-based acute viral encephalopathy (VDA), mild fever and irritability, in addition to decreasing the frequency of recurrences of acute viral diarrhea and VD among vaccinated children. The vaccine was also effective in preventing the infection from spreading to the infants’ mothers. There are no adequate data available to assess the safety of the vaccine in children below five years of age. Based on these findings, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has authorized the release of two types of the vaccine: covid-19 vaccine development in combination with hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and an alkalizing agent in combination with a novel strain of enterovirulent bacteria. In September last year, the US FDA approved two types of the vaccine – the covid-20 vaccine development program type (CDPV) and the covid-11 vaccine development program type (CVRP). Both types of the vaccines are scheduled for clinical trials in the future.
In recent years, there have been efforts to speed up the clinical trials for the two Johns Hopkins medicines. According to scientists, the accelerated phase of the clinical trials would help speed up the process of introducing these drugs in the market. They also hope that the new improved drugs will be able to provide better protection from the disease. In addition to this, the clinical trials should be designed in such a way that they can determine the long term effects of the vaccines on patients. These long-term studies will be important in determining whether the drugs can give protection to children in the future.
Based on the results of the clinical trials, the regulatory authorities of the United States will issue an authorisation for the manufacture and distribution of the two vaccines. The regulatory authorities will also require additional tests to ensure that the products are safe and are capable of giving full protection from the disease. The vaccines will then be available for everyone who needs them.